IBT Roundup
Vol. IV    No. 9              Delhi,   Thursday,   Nov. 8, 1945.              Reg. No. L5015

Roundup Staff Article
  Although around 44,000 military personnel are to be moved out of the Theater this month, exactly 36,215 were at the ports of embarkation on Nov. 1, India-Burma Theater Headquarters pointed out this week in a statement to the Roundup.
  So after the ports are cleared of the 36,215, only around 7,700 troops can be accommodated on the remaining ships in November.
  This means that only 7,700 of the men who move to the ports during November will be able to move from the ports the same month.
  The remainder will be forced to wait for December shipping, no matter how soon they arrive at the ports.

Advance Section
Passes Into History;
Consolidation Made
Roundup Field Correspondent   

  LEDO - Without fanfare, Advance Section passed into history on Nov. 1 when it was deactivated and consolidated with Intermediate Section.
  The action brings a step nearer the complete liquidation of American activities in the India-Burma Theater.
  For administrative purposes, the huge area including Ledo, Shingbwiyang, Myitkyina, and Bhamo which formerly comprised Advance Section is placed under the newly activated Ledo Area Command, Col. Robert A. Hirshfield, commanding.
  In the new setup, Brig. Gen. Walter K. Wilson, Jr., commanding officer of Advance Section, takes over command of the expanded Intermediate Section.
  Advance Section has been one of the most famous commands in World War II. Under its jurisdiction was built the Stilwell Road, the pipeline, and signal communications network which provided an overland supply route to blockaded China.


  The Distinguished Service Medal this week was awarded Maj. Gen. Vernon E. Evans, Chief of Staff for the India-Burma Theater under all three Theater commanders.
  Notification of the citation was received from the War Department and was issued by direction of the President.
  Gen. Evans has served in the Theater since November, 1943. He was promoted to major general in February of this year.
  Evans was made Theater Chief of Staff under Gen. Joseph W. Stilwell.
  The DSM was pinned on Evans by Maj. Gen. Thomas A. Terry, India-Burma Theater commander.

Gen. Tomoyuki Yamashita (center), The Tiger of Malaya who commanded the Japanese forces in the Philippines, is shown with defense counsel in a courtroom at Manila after pleading not guilty to the charge of being a war criminal.  His lawyers are Col. Harry Clarke of Altoona, Pa., left, and Capt. Adolf Reel of Boston, Mass.

Japanese Rape Orgies Related By Victims
Roundup Staff Article     
  Chinese, Filipino and Spanish witnesses this week kept the Manila war crimes trials courtroom in a constant turmoil, hysterically cursing the Japanese and screaming for the death of Lt. Gen. Tomoyuki Yamashita, one-time "Tiger of Malaya."
  As the trial of the former Philippines commander progressed, testimony disclosed that the Japs herded 1,500 civilians into the German Club in Manila during last February's reign of terror, set fire to the building and killed or raped women trying to flee the inferno, Army News Service reported.
  Bullet-headed Yamashita lost his Oriental composure for the first time when witnesses told how his soldiers had murdered 50 civilians, including 16 Christian brothers at LaSalle College in Manila, during this wave of brutality. As the gruesome details mounted, including stories of the rape of women dead for 24 hours and how 20 of his men abused a 13-year-old girl who had fled from the club by cutting off her breasts, the "Tiger" cast hurried, furtive glances from behind his horn-rimmed spectacles at the five-man Army commission sitting in stony judgment at his trial.
  Most sensational development of the trial was the testimony of a number of women, including members of some of Manila's prominent families, that they had been raped as many as 15 times by Jap troops during a brutal six-day orgy.
  One witness, identified only as Miss "A." said a Jap used a knife on her when he found she could not be raped because of her tender age and underdeveloped condition. Following the operation, she was raped three times, she testified.
  Another witness, a Miss "G." testified she was raped 12 to 15 times, first by three Japs in succession in Manila's fashionable Bayview Hotel, when a number of girls were taken forcibly out of a group of some 400 prominent women and girls the Japs had rounded up for their lustful orgy.
  Miss "G" said she was taken to a private room on the upper floor along with about 20 other girls, including some 12 to 14 years old, when the orgy started on Feb. 9 of this year, as American troops were besieging the capital.
  A Manila undertaker testified that early in February he buried 8,000 victims of the Japs, who wantonly tortured, raped, and murdered civilians. He said he found hundreds of bodies lying around the driveway to his residence. Bodies of women and children bore gunshot wounds. One woman had her breasts chopped off. Another had her lower abdomen ripped out with a bayonet.
  Another witness told how Japs massacred patients at National Psychopathic Hospital in February killing 21 patients and raping and killing others. The witness declared he saw patients tied together and herded into a dark storeroom and other patients stabbed with spears by Jap troops.
  Yamashita's name was brought directly into the testimony for the first time by a Japanese witness, Fermin Miyasaki, former interpreter at Jap Military Police headquarters. Miyasaki told the U.S. Military Commission that Yamashita commended his club-wielding police for their "fine work" during ceremonies in Manila last December.
  Miyasaki testified he saw at least 400 civilians come through police headquarters and most of them were given the third degree and at least 50 were beaten and 30 tortured.
  Later, two other witnesses declared that Yamashita had issued orders to "wipe out" all Filipinos, and that he knew and approved of the troops' brutalities. One of the witnesses, a former secretary to Political General Ricarte, told the commission that in conversations with Ricarte the "Tiger" had affirmed his order to wipe out all Filipinos. The other witness, a former Filipino collaborator, told the military tribunal that the Japanese commander issued an official order for the destruction of Manila and the massacre of its inhabitants.
  Yamashita also was subjected to a hysterical tongue-lashing bay a 17-year-old Filipino who related from the witness stand how blood-mad Japs shot or beheaded more than 400 civilians in Manila.

 By SGT. FRED FRIENDLY   Roundup Field Correspondent

  KARACHI - The damndest thing I've heard in 200,000 miles of hitch-hiking is the call signal of the G.I. radio station here at Karachi. With a clear, resonant voice, the guy proudly proclaims - "VU2ZX, the gateway of India and the Far East."
  You ought to see the bewildered expressions on the jungle wallahs, who, after sweating out air travel from Dum Dum or the Valley, or even worse, inching their way across vast Mother India via train, hear their first identification of Karachi by a Platter Jockey who tells them they have just arrived at the gateway of India, "Nai malum, sahib."
  Actually Karachi with its busy port and its not so busy airport, is the gateway to the most wonderful dream world in the universe. And Camp Malir is the last few yards of parkway which leads to the golden gateway out of this not-to-be-revisited continent.
  Here at Camp Malir they put you into packages of three and five thousand dog faces which a guy named Pruyn delivers to the man with the boat and the life-jackets.
  Lt. Col. Franklin Pruyn runs Camp Malir and is the last commanding officer many of us will have in the Army - for any length of time. If the Stilwell theory that a G.I. is happiest when griping is true, they should let some Stateside Commandos with Coca Cola still in his kidneys run this place so that we could gripe about being bossed around by a brass hat with no Hershey bars on his sleeve and no atabrine in his skin. Instead, this man Pruyn turns out to be a sahib with 115 points and 29 months in India. He has a Southern accent which is being superseded by an Indian one.
  I think it's safe to say he does a tough job rather well. Compared with Kanchrapara, Malir is a paradise, but it's still got vortexes of dust, no suitable transportation around an enormous base, guard duty for those who can't get out of it, and a little kitchen vocation for those who happen to have mess spec numbers on their Form 20's.
  The food is not as good here as it was at Ledo and Piardoba and Calcutta the last times I was there, but that's because all the U.S. and Australian meat is going up to the woods.
  On the credit side of the ledger, the barracks are well built and kept clean by Indian laborers, but when Malir is full some of the men have to live in tents which can't keep out the dirt.
  There are plenty of recreational facilities here, five theaters, operating in the morning and every Special Service facility from ping-pong balls to guide books to India.
  The best that can be said of the Malir people is that they treat the G.I. rather well. There is little of the chicken experienced at similar depots in the States and a minimum of privates first class telling tech sergeants what to do. And you don't have to hide in the latrine to keep from going on detail.
  There are enlisted men's bars with cold beer and real whiskey. The miracle of our age is how 50 cases of officer's jungle rations ended up in the G.I. bar. Here is another miracle: some G.I.'s are sleeping on iron cots with mattresses, while a few officers are tossing on rope beds. Yes sir, they are on the beam here in many ways.
  Pruyn told me that the bane of his existence are the boats that come into port needing repairs and thus cause delays.
  As for tips to those soon heading for Malir - first and foremost - don't let any supply room soak you for any little pieces of clothing or personal equipment you've lost. The supply people are swell here and will help you out of any bad spot, which is the way it should be with the surplus of equipment in the Theater. Don't let them take your PX ration card away. You'll need it here to get a transient one. And for heaven's sake, don't let your old outfit take away one set of your O.D.'s, like they did mine. They issue you another set here if you only have a single set, and tailors get good money for alterations here.
  As for details, usually only volunteers work in the kitchen, but non-coms do get socked with occasional guard duty; example, Roundup's John Derr. Officers up through captain go on an O.D. roster and the poor but valiant flight officers are liable to catch hell on PX inventory and similar duties.
  But it's not too bad a deal here. I've talked to almost a hundred G.I.'s and although they don't rave about Malir or call it a happy hunting ground for worn-out old soldiers, they aren't doing any real professional bitching.

U.S. Forces Meddling In China, Reds Charge
 Roundup Staff Article

  The United States this week found itself sitting on top a political powder keg which threatened to explode into widespread civil war between the Communist and Kuomintang forces in China.
  In a week marked by the reported attack by 100,000 Red troops on the strategic rail junction of Tatung in Northern Shansi Province, the Communists charged that "the United States is meddling, under the guise of policeman, in China's internal affairs."
  In printing the charges, the Communist New China Daily News took issue with Lt. Gen. Albert C. Wedemeyer's recent statement that the mission of his troops in China in assisting the Central Government to take over from the Japanese does not constitute direct action against the Reds.
  Wedemeyer, commanding general of the China Theater recently called to Washington, admitted in a broadcast over a national network in San Francisco, while en route back to China, that the assistance his American military forces were according the redistribution of Chinese government troops strengthened Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's position. But he emphasized it did not constitute direct action against the Communists, stating that should Chinese Central Government troops be attacked by Communists while engaged in redeployment, American troops in the area would be ordered to retire immediately.

  The New China Daily News branded American assistance in the redeployment of Kuomintang troops "active interference" in China's affairs. The newspaper mentioned the possibility of United States forces becoming involved in armed conflict if they "remain."
  Yenan and Chungking Communist sources made unsubstantiated charges that American reconnaissance preceded the capture by Central government troops of a Communist-occupied town within 10 miles of Peiping. The same sources reported China's New Sixth Army was in action against the Reds along the rail line between Tientsin and Pukow, and said these were Central Government troops both trained and equipped by the United States while in North Burma.
  While spurning the National government's latest proposal aimed at avoiding full-scale civil war, Gen. Chou En-lai, number two Communist leader, said there is "no necessity at all for the United States to handle the transportation of Kuomintang troops to areas which the Communists have recovered from the Japanese."
  The latest transportation assistance provided by United States forces was the movement this week of Chinese government troops to the port of Chingwangtao, east of Peiping in North China, by the United States Seventh Fleet.

  In North China, while Communist troops of an estimated 100,00 strength were reported besieging 10,000 Kuomintang troops in Tatung, the Communists claimed the capture of Peiteiho Station on the Peiping-Mukden Railway, about 10 miles southwest of Chingwangtao which is held by United States Marines.
  Meanwhile, in Washington War Department officials said the Army is not helping China recruit discharged American Air Force men.
  Chinese officials in the capital, discussing published reports that China is recruiting such men, said their country will need a "large number of experienced flyers" to assist in the training of Chinese Air Force personnel. They confined their discussion to training phases without mention of any recruiting of Americans to man Chinese planes.

Terry Denies Surplus Goods Being Scrapped
 Roundup Staff Article

  CALCUTTA - Maj. Gen. Thomas A. Terry, India-Burma Theater commander, this week issued the following statement regarding Army property in the Theater:
  "My attention has been called to a statement attributed to the American columnist, Paul Mallon, that the British imposed upon the United States Forces in Assam 'an officially ordered restriction against leaving anything behind that might be of benefit to the natives.'
  "I desire to state that there is no such restriction, nor has any request to impose such a restriction been received at my headquarters from any British or Indian source.
  "Statement such as this arise from rumor and misunderstanding. For example, the United States Army is under instructions from the United States War Department to return to the United States available stocks of atabrine.

  "Knowing that this medicine may soon have to be shipped from the United States to India for the Government of India, my headquarters recently asked Washington for authority to keep here 50,000,000 atabrine tablets for sale to the Government of India.
  "This is quite contrary to rumors that our Army destroys useful medicines. The fact is that certain medicines deteriorate with age, and when medical opinion declare them unsafe for use, they are destroyed. Such medicines would be equally dangerous to Indian lives as to American.
  "On the other hand, our policy with regard to equipment recognizes that much material which we Americans regard as unserviceable and not worth the cost of repair may be useful here in India, so that we propose turning over to the Foreign Liquidation Commission for sale much material which we would otherwise cast aside or destroy.

  "It is a fact that before our policy was fully understood throughout the Theater, some equipment was damaged or destroyed under conditions which appeared dubious.
  "Reported incidents of this character have been under investigation by my staff for some time.
  "I should like to call attention to the fact that in attempting to dispose of U.S. government property prior to evacuating the Theater, my headquarters and the Foreign Liquidation Commission are working very closely with the disposal board of the Government of India and making every effort to effect the most intelligent and equitable disposition of our surplus property.

Sgt. Guy Pitts, center, looks a bit perplexed as S/Sgt. Roy H. Sause, left, and M/Sgt. Robert C. Thompson explain the mysteries of the electric-eye counter they devised after wearying of mess counting detail at 835th Signal Service Battalion Mess Hall in New Delhi.


 Roundup Staff Article

  Electronics - what won't it do next?
  Electronics made possible pin-point bombing of Tokyo and Berlin. It guided ack-ack shells with unerring accuracy against Kamikaze raiders. Now the post-war electronic millennium is practically here - electronics has at last been harnessed to take the boredom out of an Army detail.
  Roundup readers in New Delhi are no doubt familiar with the job of counting G.I.'s as they enter the mess hall. It seems as though M/Sgt. Robert C. Thompson of Muskegon, Mich., and S/Sgt. Roy H. Sause of Baltimore, Md., both skilled radio engineers with the 835th Signal Service battalion - got stuck with this detail once too often.
  Armed with slide rules, resistors and condenser charts, they repaired to the laboratory to find a way out. Followed much scrounging around for discarded parts - and finally the Big Test.
  With doubtful eyes, Mess officer Capt. Richard H. Dustin and Mess Sgt. Daniel Mangold frowned at the gadget - a piece of G.I. flashlight directed at a little black box which contained a photo-electric cell hitched to a counting meter.
  The first G.I. strolled into the mess hall. As predicted, his body blocked the beam of light. The circuit was broken, the counter clicked. The Electronic Age had come to stay in the mess hall of the 835th!
  To a crowd of curious G.I.'s inventor Sause explained the elementary principles: "The output goes from the photo-electric cell to this amplifier tube. Then through this balanced control circuit to this solenoid. There is a constant potential in this control magnet, and . . "
  Mess Sgt. Mangold interrupted, "Listen, all I n know is it works. That's enough." He happily copied off the electrically counted score and sailed proudly back into the kitchen.
  Thompson and Sause point out that their gadget is more accurate than the old horse and buggy method, saves six man-hours of work per day and has relieved them from another detail.
  Both inventors had previously received personal commendations from Lt. Gen. Wheeler, when he was I-B Theater commander.
  Thompson and Sause are now working on still another electronic device to make post war life more happy and full. This one is an electronic cigarette lighter. It consists mainly of a condenser about the size of a coffee can, with a small gasoline trough on top. The condenser discharges. The gasoline ignites. A blinding flash of light leaps two feet in the air.
  Thompson shouts, "We still have a little work to do on it."

Former ‘Flying Tigers’ Prove Smart Flyers

  NEW YORK - (UP) - Death in a plane crash came to one ex-member of the famed Flying Tigers last month in China, while around the world in the U.S., a group of other Tigers achieved new laurels by making the columns of Time magazine's business section as the result of a smart business deal.
  The unlucky ace was Capt. Frank L. Higgs, Columbus, O., who was the model for "Duke" Hennick, character in Milton Canniff's comic strip, Terry and the Pirates. His plane crashed enroute to Canton from Shanghai.
  The financially-minded flyers hit the news with the completion of one year's operation of their Skyways Freight Corporation. President Prescott, who had six Jap planes to his credit in the "old days," was its founder.
  Together with ex-aces Robert F. "Duke" Hedman, Dick Rossi and Joe Rosbert, Prescott raised $174,000 by borrowing and mortgaging their planes, and made an $80,000 profit from the sale of six of the fourteen Conestoga cargo planes which they had bought under their veterans' priorities.
  In its first year Skyways dug up jobs carrying football teams, baby chicks, penicillin and race horses. Now Skyways has its first regular contract carrying flowers from California to Chicago for $21,000 per year.
  Sailors fresh from fifteen months in the Pacific once chartered five of Skyway's planes to fly home in grand style.


  The Meritorious Service Unit plaque was awarded to the Fourth Army Airways Communications System Wing by Maj. Gen. T. J. Hanley, Theater USAAF commander.
  The award, the highest possible for a non-combatant group, was presented to Col. Albert J. Mandelbaum, commanding officer, upon the recommendation of Lt. Gen. George Stratemeyer in "recognition of superior performance of duty in the execution of exceptionally difficult tasks."
  Established in the CBI in the early months of 1942, the Fourth AACS Wing operates and maintains airway navigational aids and communication facilities.

 CLICK HERE to view the film CLICK HERE to view the film
Army Documentary Film ‘Stilwell Road’
Acclaimed By British Enlisted Men

 By SGT. ART HEENAN   Roundup Staff Writer

  The Signal Corps picture Stilwell Road, currently touring the Theater, can hardly be called the Army's answer to Objective, Burma! because as far as we know, the War Department never took any cognizance of the "epic" which showed Errol Flynn and his stalwarts capturing Burma.
  However, by inference, it could be called a rebuttal to Objective, Burma! It definitely shows that Americans were in this Theater for one reason only, that to open a supply route to China. Full credit is given to the British and the Chinese for their aid in opening the Stilwell Road.
  The picture doesn't have the Flynn glamour to enhance its value. Nor does it have the Hollywood clichés of the poignant husband, the tearful youngster, and the rah-rah patriotic trimmings. Stilwell Road is a documentary, factual film, substantiated by dates, places and events which can be verified by any newspaper morgue.

  In view of the storm raised by that Hollywood masterpiece, Objective, Burma! we took two British soldiers to a private showing of Stilwell Road at Theater Headquarters. They were Pvts. Bob Rosemoff and Frank Welsh of the Royal Signals.
  Both commented that the picture was "very fair" and gave credit where it was due. Their joint opinion seemed to be that the average British soldier would not object to this picture as in any way detracting from the feats of the 14th Army.
  "Certainly in this film there is no American claim that you captured Burma or even tried to do so," stated Welsh. "It makes it very clear that the U.S. war effort was dedicated to the opening of the Stilwell Road. Full credit is given to the Chindits and the part played by the British in throwing back the Japanese attempt to cut the Chinese and American supply lines to North Burma."

  Rosemoff, who saw service with the Eighth Army, noted that the film traced back as far as the opening of the Iran supply line, which the commentator said was saved by the British at El Alamein and by the Russians at Stalingrad.
  "I frankly admit that I didn't know what the Americans were doing out here," shrugged Rosemoff. "I wish our chaps could see more of your Army films. Certainly they would be pleased at this one. And it would take away a lot of the bad taste left by Objective, Burma!"
  Stilwell Road is actually a history of this Theater, both as the CBI and as India-Burma. It starts off with pictures of the old Burma Road supply route. Then it shows how the route was severed by the Jap attack in Burma. The last ditch fight by the RAF and the Flying Tigers in Burma, the retreat of the forces led by Field Marshal Alexander and Gen. Joseph W. Stilwell were forcefully recorded amidst floods of refugees.
  A close-up of rugged Uncle Joe is shown with his now famous comment, "It was humiliating as hell." The film explains the terrain and terrible climatic conditions under which the Allies had to fight to regain Burma.

  The Ramgarh Training Center is shown with the raw Chinese being trained by American cadres, with Stilwell poring over maps. The scene shifts to the British preparation, with close-ups of Field Marshal Wavell, then in command of the British forces here, and of Gen. Sir Claude Auchinleck, who became his successor in India.
  The beginning of The Hump route is explained. Arrows demonstrate how Japanese possession of Myitjyina forced ATC planes flying from Dibrugarh to Kunming to take the longer and more hazardous northern route. It was termed the "525-mile sky bridge over the roof of the world."
  Initial construction of the Ledo Road progresses. Supplies are shown being transported up from Calcutta over the shaky Bengal and Assam R. R. and the winding Hooghly River. The return of Maj. Gen. Orde Wingate's first Chindit expedition is pictured.
  The Quebec conference, with Lord Louis Mountbatten being appointed SEAC commander, comes on. From there the film shows the plan of campaign and divides it into four phases.
  (1) A diversionary thrust into the Arakan by the 14th Army, the British drive down the peninsula, the Japs' attempt to cut their communication lines, and consolidation of the 14th's lines before the monsoon complete this phase.
  (2) A drive by Stilwell's Chinese and American forces into North Burma to take Mogaung and Myitkyina to link the Ledo Road with the Burma Road.
  (3) A long-range penetration operation by the Wingate Chindits to cut the Nip supply lines to Northern Burma to aid Stilwell's troops.

  (4) An attack from Yunnan province by the Chinese forces across the Salween to link up with the North Burma troops and open the Burma Road into China.
  The heroic defense of Manipur, with the outnumbered British holding Kohima for 13 days until they were relieved in the face of Japs thrice their number is recorded. The film goes on to depict the seizure of Myitkyina, scenes of which were incidentally shown in Objective, Burma! and the eventual opening of the route to China, with the arrival of the first convoy.
  The history of The Road and the pipelines is traced. Formation of Col. Phil Cochran's First Air Commandos, of Maj. Gen. Frank Merrill's Marauders and of Wingate's landings in the heart of Burma are played up.
  But the theme of the entire film is the Allied war effort out here, including the fighting in China. Development of the B-29 bases and their raids are given.
  Appropriately enough, the ending of the film shows close-ups of British, Chinese, Burmese, Indian and American troops, all of whom contributed to the opening of the once-labeled "impossible" land route to China. Possibly Stilwell Road lacks box office appeal in an entertainment sense, but its calm, factual narration lends a basic human interest atmosphere that vividly portrays the fight of man against nature and the Japs.

  How America and her Allies fought the war in China, Burma, and India has been set forth graphically in the biennial report of the Army Chief of Staff, Gen, George C. Marshall, to the Secretary of War.
  The report, covering the period July 1, 1943 to June 30, 1945, recently has been made available to the Roundup.
  Roundup's editors have selected pertinent excerpts on our neck of the war so that all India-Burma personnel may read the report on our share in global conflict as reported to the American public. - The Editor.
Marshall Sets Forth
China-Burma-India Job

  Of all the battle fronts of the global war, the situation in East Asia two years ago was the bleakest for the United Nations. The advance eastward of the Japanese had been halted in the critical battles of Midway and the Coral Sea, but Japan still held tremendous areas replete with the natural resources essential to the conduct of modern warfare.
  Japan's rush into Burma had isolated China except for the thin line of air supply over the 500 miles of the Himalayan Hump between Assam, India and the Yunnan plateau. The Japanese had attacked China at the most propitious time for carrying out their dreams of conquest of Asia and Oceania. In the face of almost a complete lack of war material, China had refused to submit. But her condition by the early summer of 1943 had grown truly desperate.
  At the QUADRANT Conference the Southeast Asia Command was created under Admiral, the Lord Louis Mountbatten. Lt. Gen. Joseph W. Stilwell, who commanded the U.S. China-Burma-India Theater, was made his deputy. All the resources the United States could make available to him were allocated for the task of re-establishing land communications to China. It was urgently desired to furnish greater Allied resources in the East than were allotted. They simply were not available.
Gen. George C. Marshall, Chief-of-Staff of the U.S. Army, is shown in one of his latest pictures from Washington.   Marshall's biennial report to the nation included the part India-Burma and China played in the global war.

  Operations in the Chinese theater of war were under the command of the Generalissimo, with Stilwell as his Chief of Staff. All Royal Air Force and Army Air Force were formed into the Eastern Air Command under Maj. Gen. George E. Stratemeyer.
  It was decided that an offensive in North Burma should be undertaken in the winter of 1943 and a944, and that the Ledo Road from Assam, then under construction by American engineers, should be extended to the old Burma Road at Mongyu as rapidly as the offensive operations progressed. It was also decided to build a pipeline from Calcutta to Assam and another one paralleling the Ledo Road. These lines would greatly increase the flow of motor fuels to China.
  At the same conference it was decided to enlarge the capacity of the Hump route to 20,000 tons a month. The plan for the bombing of the Japanese Islands by B-29's operating out of China was reviewed and accepted at the QUADRANT Conference. The air plan for the reduction of Japan, adopted at the conference, foresaw the establishment of Superfortress bases in the Pacific to subject Japan to the same devastating air attack that was to prepare Germany for assault by our ground forces.

  Since the operation in Burma could not begin until the monsoon had ended in Assam and the floods had receded, the Allied staff chiefs with the President and Prime Minister had the opportunity to meet with Chiang Kai-shek in Cairo in November, 1943, before our projected offensive began. At the Cairo Conference the Combined Chiefs of Staff made further efforts to find the resources to increase the scope of the Burma campaign by adding amphibious operations in the Bay of Bengal. These resources were available nowhere in this world unless we abandoned the great basic decision to close with the German enemy in Western Europe in 1944. The alternative would have permitted the Japanese to exploit their prizes of conquest in the Pacific islands. It was determined, however, that by means of the projected Allied attacks across the India-Burma frontier, it would be possible to drive the Japanese from Northern Burma and achieve the objective of reopening surface communications to China.
  The preliminaries to these operations began late in October just prior to the conferences at Cairo and Teheran. The Chinese 22nd and 38th Divisions moved from their forward positions in front of the advancing Ledo Road into the Hukawng Valley. These troops had been trained in the center established at Ramgarh, India, through the energy and wisdom of Gen. Stilwell and with the approval of the Generalissimo.

  In February the Chinese advances down the Hukawng Valley were joined by a specially trained American infantry combat team known as the GALAHAD Force commanded by Brig. Gen. Frank D. Merrill. These troops had been gathered in a call for volunteers that went to all United States jungle trained and veteran Infantry units in the Pacific and in the Western hemisphere, Marching over the most difficult terrain under intolerable weather conditions, the Chinese and American forces virtually destroyed the Japanese 18th Division, which had captured Singapore in the Japanese advance in May, 1944, they fought their way into the airfield at Myitkyina, the key to Northern Burma.
  During most of this campaign the Japanese were effectively blocked from reinforcing Northern Burma through the Irrawaddy Valley by columns of seasoned British and Indian jungle troops, commanded by the late Maj. Gen. Orde C. Wingate. These columns were known as long-range penetration groups. Some of them marched from India to establish their strangle holds on Japanese communications; others were taken in by glider in an airborne operation directed by U.S. Col. Philip G. Cochran, who commanded a specially organized composite air group known as Air Commandos. While Gen. Stilwell's forces were advancing on Myitkyina, troops of the Generalissimo commanded by Marshal Wei Li-Huang crossed the Salween River from the east.
  Patrols of the two forces finally met at Tengchung in the summer of 1944, establishing the first thin hold on Northern Burma.

  During the fall of 1943, the Japanese, anticipating the attack in Burma, had been building their strength for a counter-offensive to prevent the re-establishment of surface communications with China. Japanese forces attacked eastward across the Salween in the Lungling area and were met and stopped by the Chinese in time to permit completion of the road from Ledo. Another strong Japanese force struck towards India while the Allied operations were in progress in an effort to seize the large British base at Imphal and sever the Bengal-Assam Railroad below the bases on which Hump air transportation and Gen. Stilwell's operations were dependent. By April, 1944, Imphal was cut off and the Japanese threatened Dimapur on the railroad. British and Indian troops flew to the sector, met the attack, turned it back, and re-established contact with the Indian divisions on the Imphal plain. After heavy and prolonged fighting, the hostile divisions were dispersed and cut up with heavy losses. At the same time, British and Japanese troops in the Arakan to the south were engaging in see-saw fighting along the coast of the Bay of Bengal.
  The re-entry into Burma was the most ambitious campaign yet waged on the end of an airborne supply line. from the first advance by the Chinese into the Hukawng Valley in October until after the fall of Myitkyina town the next August there were at all times between 25,000 and 100,000 troops involved in fighting and dependent largely on entirely on food, equipment and ammunition that could be air supplied, either by parachute, free drop or air-landed.
  The air supply was maintained by troop carrier squadrons, British and American, commanded by Brig. Gen. William D. Old, under the direction of Gen. Stratemeyer's Eastern Air Command. Night and day troop carrier C-46's and C-47's shuttled from numerous bases and air strips in the Bramaputra Valley to points of rendezvous with the Allied ground columns in the Burma jungle. Each trip had to be flown over one or more of the steep spines which the Himalayas form southward along the India-Burma frontier to establish one of the most formidable barriers to military operations in the world. The troops carrier squadrons at the height of the campaign averaged 230 hours of flying time for each serviceable plane per month for three months. The normal average monthly flying time is 120 hours.
  At two critical stages of the campaign the troop carrier squadrons assisted by Air Transport Command planes made major troop movements in a matter of hours and days that would have required weeks and months by surface transport.
  The first was the movement of British and Indian troops to meet the threat on the Bengal-Assam Railroad at Dimapur. The second was the movement of two Chinese divisions, the 14th and 50th, from Yunnan, China, across the Hump to the troop carrier base at Sookerating, in Northern Assam. This operation was accomplished in just eight days. The Chinese troops were picked up by Air Transport Command planes in China and landed at the troop carrier field where they were entirely refitted, armed, and flown to a staging area in the Hukawng from where they entered the battle for Myitkyina.
  Only by air supply was the Burma campaign at all possible. The jungle-covered ridges between India and Burma have effectively resisted the advance of civilizations. They are inhabited by mountain tribes of Kachins, Shans, and the head-hunting Nagas. Before United States Engineers accomplished the Herculean job of driving the Ledo Road, known as the Stilwell Road, across the mountains and through the jungles, a road from the Brahmaputra to the Irrawaddy Valley was considered an impossibility.
  The mission that the Joint Chiefs of Staff had given Gen. Stilwell in Asia was one of the most difficult of the war. he was out at the end of the thinnest supply line of all; the demands of the war in Europe and the pacific campaign, which were clearly the most vital to final victory, exceeded our resources in may items of material and equipment and all but absorbed everything else we had. Gen. Stilwell could have only what was left and that was extremely thin. he had a most difficult physical problem of great distances, almost impassable terrain, widespread disease and unfavorable climate; he faced an extremely difficult political problem and his purely military problem of opposing large numbers of enemy with few resources was unmatched in any Theater.
  Nevertheless, Gen. Stilwell sought with amazing vigor to carry out his mission exactly as it had been stated. His great effort brought a natural conflict of personalities. he stood, as it were, the middleman between two great governments other than his own, with slender resources and problems somewhat overwhelming in their complexity. as a consequence it was deemed necessary in the fall of 1944 to relieve Gen. Stilwell of the burden of his heavy responsibilities in Asia and give him a respite from attempting the impossible.
  At the same time it became obvious the mission of re-establishing communications with China would be accomplished, and as the future objectives of the forces in Southeast Asia and China were to grow continually more divergent, it appeared advisable to make a clear division of the two theaters. Accordingly the American administrative area of China-Burma-India was separated into the India-Burma and China Theaters. Lt. Gen. Daniel I. Sultan, who had been Gen. Stilwell's deputy, was given command of the India-Burma Theater. Maj. Gen. Albert C. Wedemeyer, formerly Chief of the War Department Strategical Planners and later a member of Adm. Mountbatten's staff, was appointed commander of our forces in China, succeeding Gen. Stilwell as the Generalissimo's Chief of Staff.

  No American officer had demonstrated more clearly his knowledge of the strength and weakness of the Japanese forces and the steps necessary to defeat them in Asia than Gen. Stilwell.
  The Burma campaign continued with intensity during the monsoon season of 1944. Chinese, American and British troops were then dispersed along the Chindwin River north of Kalewa and from the upper Irrawaddy to Lungling. It was planned to drive southward through Central Burma to Mandalay, and Adm. Mountbatten prepared for operation DRACULA to seize Rangoon amphibiously from the south. At the close of the monsoon, Chinese, American and British troops under the immediate command of Gen. Sultan advanced southward astride the Irrawaddy, captured Shwegu in early November, and by December had cleared the projected trace of the supply road to Bhamo.

  The Japanese in Burma had never recovered from Gen. Stilwell's thrusts and from the losses inflicted by British and Indian forces on their 15th, 31st and 33rd Divisions in their abortive effort to sever the Bengal-Assam Railroad. As fast as the combat forces moved ahead, United States Engineers, commanded by Brig. Gen. Lewis A. Pick, shoved the road forward behind them, operating their bulldozers so far forward that they were frequently under fire. On Jan. 28, 1945, a convoy of American trucks and material from India crossed the Burma-China frontier. The Stilwell Road was open.
  In Western Burma the British broke south through Tiddim across the Chindwin against Japanese delaying actions. Southward in the Arakan, British operations cleared the Kaladan River deltas on the Arakan coast and provided air strips at Akyab and on Ramree Island.
  The Japanese retreat in Burma was in full swing by the end of January, 1945. Gen. MacArthur's successive landings in the Philippines and United States fleet operations in the China Sea had cut the Japanese supply line to Burma. In mid-February, a British column crossed the Irrawaddy near pagan and drove to Meiktila. The seizure of this road and rail center with its airfields undermined the whole Japanese position in Central Burma. In the meantime, other British-Indian forces were closing on Mandalay from the north and west. Japanese trapped in Mandalay held out against the British until March 21. Forty days later British airborne troops descended along the western shore of the Rangoon River south of the port and assault troops came ashore the following day. The Japanese had already fled Rangoon and the British forces entered on May 3. The port facilities were captured in good condition.
  The Asiatic operations had been maintained at the end of the most precarious supply lines in history. The efforts of the United States service forces to strengthen them were prodigious. United States port battalions at Calcutta worked in intolerable heat and humidity with native labor weakened by disease, heat and famine. Despite these handicaps, they established records exceeding those of every other military port in the world for quick unloading and turn-around of our ships. At the same time, the capacity of the tiny Bengal-Assam Railroad was more than doubled by American railway battalions which refused to let the disease and heat of the steaming Brahmaputra Valley dissipate their energies as they have weakened white men and brown for centuries.
  By January, 1945, Hump cargo had been increased to the amazing rate of 46,000 tons a month. This vital and hazardous traffic stands as one of the great logistical accomplishments of the war against Japan.
  In May, 1944, however, the Japanese had launched a strong drive southward from Tung Ting Lake in Hunan Province. In the late summer they began a complementary drive west from Canton. These salients joined near the American air base at Kweilin, severing unoccupied China, and overran seven of the principal bases from which the 14th Air Force had been throwing its weight against shipping in the China Sea. In April, 1945, the Japanese drove out of Paoching against our important air base at Chihkiang. Supported by the 14th Air Force, Chinese troops slowed, stopped, then threw back this Japanese column with heavy losses. The offensives in China were the most serious the Japanese were able to mount in 1944 and 1945.
  By the spring of this year the impact of the smashing attack across the Pacific islands had been felt deep in Asia. Fearing for the safety of their homeland, the Japanese had begun to withdraw large forces from South and Central China. Behind them Chinese troops were applying every pressure their present strength would permit. Under Gen. Wedemeyer, American officers in increasing numbers were helping speed the re-training and re-equipping of Chinese soldiers who had been fighting the Japanese for eight long years.
  We were determined that when the final battle of Japan was fought the armies of the Emperor would find no comfort anywhere on earth.

One-Half Of Advance Section Personnel
Depart That Area Since September 10

 By SGT. RAY HOWARD   Roundup Field Correspondent

  LEDO - With less than 60 shipping days remaining before Christmas, several thousand Ledo Road builders are staged in Ledo, hoping anxiously that by some miracle they may spend the holidays at home with their families. Whether they will or not depends on the transportation situation.
  Reduced transportation facilities in the latter half of October cut down considerably on the number of departures, which previously had exceeded schedule. At this time, evacuation is proceeding according to quotas assigned by Theater headquarters. Since the first troop train left Ledo Sept. 10, more than one-half the personnel of Advance Section have departed this area.
  Whether transportation problems will be solved is not within the administrative provinces of Advance Section, but troops may find encouragement in two facts: (1) It is the intention of Advance Section Command to try to move all category IV troops from the section by the end of November, and (2) It is anticipated (not scheduled or promised) that the Assam air lift for November will be almost 16,000 men, of which more than one-third probably will be flown from Advance Section. If it is possible to meet tentative schedules, five times as many troops are expected to proceed to Karachi by air during November as leave by train.

  Most of the troops in forward areas have been moved to Ledo for final processing and convenience of supply. Approximately 15,000 men are in Ledo awaiting transportation to ports of embarkation.
  One of the most famous units of India-Burma-China started on the road home recently - the 236th Engineer Combat Battalion. They arrived in India in December, 1943, and for five months worked on construction of Ledo base installations. On May 28, 1944, with only 12 hours notice, they were flown into Myitkyina as battle replacements for Merrill's Marauders. Under fire for 61 days, they suffered 40 percent casualties, with 37 killed. For their gallantry, the unit received the presidential Unit Citation and many individuals were decorated. After the Battle of Myitkyina, the unit was reorganized and since that time has been engaged in construction work along Stilwell Road.
  One glamorous evacuation was made when 86 nurses of the 14th Evacuation Hospital left Ledo for Chabua and subsequent airlift to Karachi. Most of the nurses were high-point personnel from various hospitals in Advance Section who have been assigned to the 14th for return to the States.

  Personnel of the 14th Evac left by rail for Karachi on Oct. 22, after 26 months of outstanding service to American and Chinese engineers and combat troops along The Road. The hospital personnel cleared their large area in virgin mountain jungle land at Mile 19 of The Road - a site which they occupied during their entire tour of duty in Assam.
  The hospital also set up four aid stations on the Refugee Trail leading out of Burma, and a branch hospital at Namgai. In the spring and summer of 1944, the hospital operated under a T/O of 750 beds, but at one time handled as many as 2,900 patients, 1,500 of whom were Merrill's Marauders. In their two years of operation, the unit handled more than 30,000 patients.
  Also departed is the 3844th QM Truck Company, which arrived in CBI in March, 1943. During their time in Advance Section they operated POL's, following the combat forces to Myitkyina. At one time, more than 15 percent of the outfit was engaged in air-drop. In October, 1944, the unit moved to Myitkyina, where it operated rations DP's and assisted in supply work along the Myitkyina-Mogaung-Mandalay Railway in support of the British 36th Division. After the opening of Stilwell Road, the outfit was assigned to convoy duty.
  One of the most-decorated companies in Advance Section - the 3841st QM Truck Company - has left after 30 months of service. Among its decorations, the unit boasts six Purple Hearts, 110 Air medals with 82 first Oak Leaf Clusters and 33 second Oak Leaf Clusters, 64 Distinguished Flying Crosses with 41 first Oak leaf Clusters and 14 second Oak Leaf Clusters and the Meritorious Unit Service Plaque.
  The 3841st was the original unit to "kick" supplies to combat. They packed, trucked and kicked supplies, losing 32 men killed in action and three missing. Later the unit trucked pipe and operated nine China convoy stations between Ledo and Kunming.
  The 3402nd Medium Automotive Maintenance Company, after two years along The Road, is gone. The unit was the first to follow The Road as it reached strategic supply points in North Burma - Shingbwiyang, Warazup, Myitkyina and, finally, Nalong. During the Battle of Myitkyina, one platoon of the company was stationed at one end of the air strip, welding together vital heavy equipment which had been torn down for air shipment, while fighting raged at the other end of the field.
  The 487th Engineer Heavy Shop Company, one of the most-publicized units overseas, is gone. Known as "Little Peoria," the unit served in Oran, North Africa, and then proceeded to India, arriving in Assam in January, 1944. With its main shops set up on a jungle hillside at Shingbwiyang, the unit established smaller shops as far up The Road as Warazup.
  The 191 members of the unit - officers and enlisted men - were volunteer enlistees from the Peoria, Ill., Caterpillar Tractor Co. Until October of this year, they gave 24-hour service to a total of 101 different Ledo Road organizations.
  The Engineers who constructed the first ponton bridge in the India-Burma Theater - the 76th Engineer Light Ponton Company - also has left. The 76th built the ponton bridge over the Burhi Dihing River at Margherita. During their two years overseas, they worked with the 71st Engineer Light Ponton Company in building a 1,100-foot fixed bridge across the Tawang River, and operated the "Burma Waterways," hauling combat supplies on the Tanai and Namchek Rivers during the 1944 monsoon. Assigned to clear the battle debris from Myitkyina in August, 1944, they lost four men to enemy action.

  Also on the way home is the 77th Engineer Light Ponton Company, which arrived in the Theater in November, 1943. Assigned the job of supplying the Chinese 22nd Division, the outfit carried supplies from Shingbwiyang to Taro, using ponton boats on the Tanai River. On their return trips, they evacuated Chinese wounded in their boats. They operated ferries at Shadazup, Warazup and Kamaing in support of combat, and in addition to evacuating wounded and maintaining the combat road, evacuated the famed Chindits from deep in North Burma's jungles. They constructed the world's longest light ponton bridge across the Irrawaddy in 10 days in January, 1945.
  Another departed outfit is the 706th Engineer Petroleum Distribution Company. After arriving in Advance Section in December, 1943, the outfit pushed the first four-inch pipeline from Mile 71 to Tingkawk Sakan, following close behind the front lines.
  The 3504th QM Truck Company, holder of the record for ship unloading at the King George Docks in Calcutta, has left. After serving on the Calcutta docks for months, the unit was given the mission of supplying the Chinese 18th Army at Bhamo, Wanting and Lashio. They later participated in China convoying.

  Other units departing were Headquarters and Headquarters Detachments of the 45th QM Battalion, with the 3461st, 3462nd, 3463rd, 3464th, 3465th, 3466th, 3467th and 3468th QM Trucking Companies; Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment of the 120th QM Battalion with the 3469th, 3470th, 3471st and 3472nd QM Truck Companies; Headquarters and \Headquarters Detachment of the 68th QM Battalion with the 3462nd QM Truck Company; the 7th Veterinarian Company, which had a record of long service with the Chinese armies, including a 60-day jungle trek with the 50th Chinese Division in combat in North Burma; the 849th Engineer Aviation Battalion, one of the oldest outfits along the Ledo Road; the 78th Ordnance Base Depot and the 3276th and 3277th QM Drum Cleaning platoons.

Gen. Joseph W. (The Hat) Stilwell is greeted by his family in Monterey, Calif., as he arrives home from the wars.   Welcoming the former CBI Theater and 10th Army commander are, left to right: His wife and two daughters, Mrs. Winifred Cox and Miss Allison Stilwell.

Friendly Leaves For States;
Lauds Stilwell, Narrates
Anecdote About Cheves

  As M/Sgt. Fred "The Man" Friendly departed the Roundup for the last time this week, enroute to Malir and home, opinion here was that the good he did will linger on in I-B and any devil he did will be entombed with his stripes.
  "The Man," boasting 102 points, including the Legion of Merit, the Soldier's Medal and four battle stars, has fought for the G.I. out here for 21 months, twice refusing suggestions that he apply for a commission.
  The self-styled "professional G.I.' is a story in himself. He was almost arrested in China by a general for daring to scoop the civilian press; had the distinction of being awarded the Legion of Merit one minute, and being bawled out for being in improper uniform the next.
  He has got feeling good with George Patton, chatted with Uncle Joe Stilwell and Lord Louis Mountbatten, and bummed rides on Lt. Gen. R. A. Wheeler's personal plane, when other transportation was not available.
  Friendly has twice toured the Theater lecturing on Germany and Japan, both of which he covered for Roundup and I and E.

  One Roundup correspondent arrived at Singapore to be promptly asked by SEAC G.I.'s and British personnel where Friendly was hanging out. It seems he had promised each G.I. a personal copy of the Roundup, autographed by himself, and told the RAF he would set them up an American PX there. All this had happened at Kandy, where he had boasted of the valor of the G.I. to Lord Louis Mountbatten as Gen. Wheeler amusedly stood by, only to be asked if Friendly could ride back to Delhi with him. He rode back, getting an interview on the way.
  The same correspondent went to a hitherto secret RAF bombing base in the Cocoa Islands, isolated near the equator. Here a group of grinning Dutch fliers asked him about Friendly, whom they described as "the big Irisher." Grinning Britishers, who knew "The Man" was as Irish as the Irish Rose's Able, explained he had told the Dutch Irish dialect stories and lectured to them on Europe.
  Even though few of the Dutch spoke English, Friendly had held their interest by digging up some American beer. That, plus his "reasonably magnificent" gestures, held the Dutch enthralled. While there he had gone on a bombing raid with the Dutch, coming back on a plane with the tail half-shot off and one motor missing.
  "The Man" won the Soldier's Medal for heroism at the Bombay fire. He went on two B-29 missions at a time when even the designers were quivering. His plane had to turn back on both missions due to mechanical difficulty, the B-29 at that time having plenty of bugs to be ironed out. He went up a third time, this occasion being the bombing of Mukden.

  He rode the Stilwell Road with the first convoy, being injured so badly he almost lost a hand. He flew night missions with the first P-51 Black Widows out here. In the Arakan he messed around with the RAF on low-bombing attacks.
  "The Man" has had his day out here. We prophesy he will have another, and bigger one, back in civilian life. His campaign line out here has been, "The G.I. forever and down with the caste system." That will also probably be his campaign line for 1948.
  His favorite character is Uncle Joe Stilwell, whom he terms "The G.I.'s pal." His favorite anecdote is that he knew Maj. Gen. Gilbert X. Cheves was in Korea, for on flying over there he could see that all the hoods of the jeeps were raised.
  In his last statement to his public "The Man" denied he was contemplating a whirlwind 30-day tour of the States on a recruiting campaign for the Army.
  "T'aint true," he snorted in his reasonably magnificent style.


  CAMP SHANKS, N.Y. - (ANS) - The first three American WAC's to be repatriated from the I-B Theater arrived here recently with the pitiful tale of living in an abandoned jute mill, eating water buffalo, suffering through a prolonged milk drought, sharing the sidewalks with sacred cows, subsisting on dehydrated vegetables and sweating out the many other hardships of life in India.
  The female vets, due for discharge soon, were S/Sgt. Kathryn E. Pearson, Sgt. Alicia Simpson, and Cpl. Hazel M. McKinney. The girls worked for the AAF in Hastings Mill, "a jute mill so small that it was only 40 steps from my bed to my desk," Sgt. McKinney reported.
  The most surprising thing the girls related was that in 13 months in the jute mill, they went to Calcutta only once. (Which, to us folks around here at least, sounds like a crock. - The Editor.)

The Roundup is a weekly newspaper of the United States Forces, published by and for the men in Burma and India, from news and pictures supplied by staff members, soldier correspondents, Army News Service and United Press.  The Roundup is published Thursday of each week and is printed by The Statesman in New Delhi and Calcutta, India.  Editorial matter should be sent directly to Major Floyd Walter, Hq., U.S.F., I.B.T., APO 885, New York, N.Y. and should arrive not later than Saturday in order to be included in that week's issue.  Pictures must arrive by Friday and must be negatives or enlargements.  Stories should contain full name and organization of sender.  Complaints about circulation should be sent directly to Capt. Drexel Nixon, Base Section, APO 465, New York, N.Y.  Units on the mailing list should make notification of any major change in personnel strength or any change of APO.

NOVEMBER  8,  1945  

Adapted from the original issue of India-Burma Theater Roundup

Similar, better quality image of General Marshall used in this re-creation.
Title frame "The Stilwell Road" did not appear in the original newspaper.

Copyright © 2009 Carl Warren Weidenburner